Tunnels in Leaves: Leaf Miners

What is a "Leaf Miner?"

If you're seeing a strange "tunnel-like" pattern in your plant leaves (pictured above) or blotches that form in leaves along with a tunnel (pictured below), you likely have leaf miners. "Leaf miner" is a term used to refer to insects that dig (tunnel) through the cells of a leaf and leave their larvae behind. There are two main factors that make this particular ailment so difficult to treat:

  1. The larvae is inside the leaf structure where sprays can't reach them. 
  2. Different types of insects can cause "leaf mining" and therefore, it's not always easy to determine what kind of control/spray you might need to deter them.
Leaf miners in my sorrel

Leaf miners in my sorrel

Controlling Leaf Miners

It seems like I get leaf miners every year, and based on conversations I've had with gardeners around here, it's pretty common. So, what's a gardener to do? Even without knowing which insect is causing the damage, most gardeners will have success with these two simple steps: 

  1. Remove affected leaves from the plant. There's no saving them now.
  2. Spray underside and tops of leaves with an organic pesticide - either Neem Oil or Spinosad.

I've only used Neem Oil myself, but may try Spinosad. Neem oil is made from the extract of the seeds of a Neem tree and can be purchased in concentrated form or in a ready to spray bottle from most garden centers. The reason I'm considering the switch from Neem oil is that I'm only having moderate success with it this year. It took care of the leaf miners when they were impacting my beets, but they're pretty persistent on my sorrel.

Spinosad is a fermented version of a naturally occurring soil bacterium. I was initially concerned about Spinosad after reading about the concern that it may be harmful to honey bees. However, I've read several scientific studies (one example: NIH abstract) that have determined that after it has dried (about 3 hours), it is not harmful to honey bees. You should still use caution in when you spray it.

Don't spray Spinosad near water or near bee colonies and only spray Spinosad in the evening hours (when bees are not active in your garden and it will be dry by the time they are). 

Leaf miners aren't the worst thing you can get in the garden, but left untreated, you may lose the plants they're affecting. As soon as you see the tunnels, just remove the leaves and spray the remaining leaves. Keep spraying here and there, particularly after a rain that may wash away the spray from the leaves.

I'm Catherine, a small-space urban gardener in New Jersey (Zone 7a) who started gardening out of upcycled wooden wine boxes. For years, I wanted to try gardening, but didn't know where to start. I got up the nerve to give it a try - starting small with a single wooden wine box that turned an idea into reality. That reality quickly turned into my filling every sunny inch of space of my postage-stamp size lawn and turning it into a garden oasis. I grow mostly vegetables and herbs with some exception for fruits (when the squirrels and rabbits don't get to them first). I love learning from gardening communities (and lots of trial and error).

I hope one day to take all that I'm learning and apply it to a larger plot of land. To help me get there, I'm extending my learning through the University of Massachusetts, Stockbridge School of Agriculture's, Sustainable Food & Farming program. (I'm addicted to learning as much as I am to gardening.)

This blog isn't just for gardeners (although I hope it inspires some of you to try growing a plant or two). The recipes (food & cocktails) in theRecipes section of this blog contain ingredients that don't have to come from your own backyard. If you like visiting your local farmer's market(or even your grocery store) and would like to get some new recipes you can use with the fresh produce and herbs you get from your local growers, this blog will have plenty for you too.

In addition to gardening and cooking, I also love to visit and photograph my surroundings. I feel fortunate to have so many amazing places here in New York/New Jersey, where I live and work. Visits to local farms, farmer's markets, and cycling through rural farming areas help me feel connected and refreshed. share these experiences in theExploring section of the blog so that you might visit through proxy or be inspired enough to visit yourself. 

With very few exceptions, all of the photographs on this site are ones I have taken myself. (For the photographers out there, I shoot with a Canon 7D and sometimes with my Lumix  DMC-ZS15 compact camera.) 

I hope this blog inspires you to grow, create, explore, and try something new. The best way to stay up-to-date is to follow me using the social buttons above, or click Subscribe and sign up for my email newsletters.    

Happy Gardening and Healthful Living!

- Catherine